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A

Aluminum

The most common source is their food and other basic needs like water and medicine. Almost everything we use in this planet contains trace amounts of aluminum, because it is one of the most abundant elements on Earth.It is important that we know what containers we use to prepare their food, as some utensils and kitchenware are aluminum. Some food such as potatoes, cheese and other dairy products may contain large amounts of aluminum in them, especially if they have such food additives. Some vaccines containing aluminum are Rabies, Lyme, and Leptospirosis

Arsenic

This mineral is used in pesticides, ant baits, wood preservatives, and some medications. Following ingestion, the mineral binds to red blood cells and is distributed throughout the body, with the highest amounts depositing in the major organs. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning in dogs may include vomiting and diarrhea containing bright red blood.Arsenic poisoning in dogs is one of the most common causes of heavy metal poisoning, occurring most commonly in young puppies. This occurs following exposure to the toxin arsenic which may be due to accidental ingestion or in some cases dermal exposure.

Antimony

Antimony alloys are also used in batteries, low friction metals, type metal and cable sheathing, among other products. Antimony compounds are used to make flame-proofing materials, paints, ceramic enamels, glass and pottery.Antimony poisoning can have harmful effects upon body tissues.Such poisoning resembles arsenic poisoning. Antimony poisoning has resulted from drinking acidic fruit juices containing antimony oxide dissolved from the glaze of cheap enamelware containers.

B

Barium

Barium is a very abundant, naturally occurring metal and is used for a variety of industrial purposes. Barium compounds, such as barium-nickel alloys are used for spark-plug electrodes and in vacuum tubes as a drying and oxygen-removing agent; barium sulfide is used in fluorescent lamps, and in diagnostic medicine; barium nitrate and chlorate give fireworks a green color. Barium compounds are used in drilling muds, paint, bricks, ceramics, glass, and rubber. Because of the high reactivity of the metal, toxicological data are available only for compounds.Soluble barium compounds are poisonous. In low doses, barium ions act as a muscle stimulant, and higher doses affect the nervous system, causing cardiac irregularities, tremors, weakness, anxiety, shortness of breath, and paralysis.

Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element. Bismuth salts seem to help eliminate bacteria that cause stomach problems such as diarrhea and stomach ulcers. Bismuth salts also work like an antacid to treat problems such as indigestion. Bismuth also might speed up blood clotting.Bismuth and its salts can cause kidney damage, although the degree of such damage is usually mild. Large doses can be fatal. Industrially it is considered one of the less toxic of the heavy metals.

Beryllium

Beryllium is alloyed with copper or nickel to make springs, gyroscopes, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes and non-sparking tools.Other beryllium alloys are used in high-speed aircrafts and missiles, as well as spacecraft and communication satellites.Beryllium is not an element that is crucial for humans or pets; in fact it is one of the most toxic chemicals we know. It is a metal that can be very harmful when breathed in, because it can damage the lungs and cause pneumonia.

C

Cadmium

Cadmium is not considered an essential nutrient for animals, though studies in rodents, chickens and livestock have shown increased weight gain with the addition of low levels of cadmium to the diet.1 Absorption of cadmium by the intestines depends on the dose, with higher doses being absorbed more readily. Cadmium seems to increase its own bioavailability by disrupting the intestinal cell barrier. However, with chronic exposure, absorption of cadmium decreases due to the development of protective mechanisms.1

Chronic cadmium consumption in food or water affects almost all major organs, with the kidney and liver being the target organs for most animals.1 The toxicity of cadmium is affected by the nutritional and physiological state of the animal.1 Dogs fed cadmium chloride at concentrations of 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg diet for three months were found to be clinically normal.5 Dogs have been shown to tolerate cadmium at a level of 10 mg/kg DM for eight years with no adverse effects, but 50 mg/kg DM over the same time period resulted in renal atrophy, renal tubule degeneration and diminished renal function.1

Chromium

Chromium has been recognized as an essential nutrient since the mid-twentieth century when it was recognized as being essential for glucose metabolism by increasing the effectiveness of insulin.Chromium deficiency in humans results in glucose intolerance, weight loss and disorders of the nervous system.Chromium is abundant in water and soil, though uptake by plants and absorption by animals is low. Most forms of chromium are poorly available, except for organically bound chromium which is better absorbed.Chromium toxicity is a concern in humans exposed to chromium in occupational and industrial settings.Dogs have a chromium requirement estimated to be less than 12 μg/kg body weight per day.Diabetic dogs treated with insulin showed no beneficial or harmful effects with supplementation of chromium picolinate at a dosage of 20-60 mg/kg/d.In obese and non-obese cats, supplementation with 100 μg/d chromium picolinate for six weeks was found to be safe, but had no effect on glucose tolerance.No definitive intake recommendations have been made for dogs or cats due to insufficient evidence.

Copper

Copper is found in meat, liver, fish, whole grains, and legumes and is typically added as a supplement to commercially prepared foods. Copper deficiency is extremely unlikely if a dog eats a nutritionally balanced diet. Problems are most often associated with copper excess, not generally from an improperly formulated diet but instead due to inborn errors of metabolism that eventually cause too much copper to accumulate in the liver. At excessively high levels, copper results in oxidative stress, inflammation, and eventually to liver scarring (cirrhosis) and failure.

Cesium

Cesium is an element. In its natural state, it is not radioactive. However, it can be made radioactive in the laboratory. People use both forms of cesium for medicine.Cesium readily combines with oxygen and is used as a getter, a material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes. Cesium is also used in atomic clocks, in photoelectric cells and as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of certain organic compounds.Stable cesium is not likely to affect the health condition, but large amounts of gamma radiation, from sources such as radioactive cesium, could damage cells and might also cause cancer. Short exposure to extremely large amounts of radiation might cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, coma, and even death

Cobalt

It’s not too radioactive and can be used as a tracer element to find things like cancer. Cobalt is used in both glazes and the manufacture of pottery, ceramics, and even the tiles on your roof. Your body actually needs cobalt to survive.Cobalt is also used to manufacture vitamin B12.There are three basic ways that cobalt can cause poisoning. You can swallow too much of it, breathe too much into your lungs, or have it come in constant contact with your skin. Recently, cobalt poisoning has been seen from the wear and tear of some cobalt/chromium metal-on-metal hip implants.

G

Gold

Gold is still used in jewelry, of course, but this element has also gone high-tech. Gold is an excellent conductor of electricity and is very non-reactive with air, water and most other substances, meaning it won’t corrode or tarnish.Pure metallic (elemental) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.Metallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser. Metallic gold is approved as a food additive in the EU (E175 in the Codex Alimentarius). Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the body.Gold is also used in medicine.

I

Iron

Iron is a chemical element that is commonly found in multiple sources around the house, garden, and yard. Sources of iron include fertilizers, multivitamins, dietary mineral supplements, some types of hand warmers, and oxygen absorbers (small sachets found in food items like beef jerky, rawhide bags, etc.). When ingested in poisonous amounts, iron can be very toxic. As iron comes in several sources, the amount of elemental iron versus “total” iron must be calculated out to see if it is a poisonous ingestion or not. When in doubt, have a medical professional at Pet Poison Helpline assist you with finding out if the amount ingested was toxic or not. Iron poisoning in dogs can range in severity of signs from vomiting, bloody diarrhea, lethargy, and abdominal pain to more severe signs of shock, tremors, and potential cardiac and liver effects.

L

Lead

Lead poisoning (toxicity), a condition in which increases levels of the metal lead is found in blood, can afflict both humans and dogs through both sudden (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposure to the metal. Through the ability to substitute itself for calcium and zinc (both important minerals for normal cell functions), lead damages the cell and affects normal biological processes.Lead poisoning is more common in young animals and in dogs living in poor areas. However, cats also succumb to lead poisoning.Ingestion of lead – sources can include paint chips, car batteries, solder, plumbing material, lubricating material, lead foil, golf balls, or any other material containing lead, use of improperly glazed ceramic food or water utensil, lead-contaminated water.

Lithium

Lithium is an element.It is present in trace amounts in virtually all rocks.Lithium (button) batteries may even pass an electric current to damage or kill tissue. Lithium disc batteries: Contain no corrosive compounds, but the esophagus becomes increasingly alkaline on the cathode side and acidic on the anode side as the current passes through the battery. This results in severe tissue damage.Lithium discs: button-size batteries found in watches, hearing aids and other small electronic devices. Batteries are one example of things we never thought our pets would eat. Then again – a dog chewing up the TV remote, a phone receiver, or chasing (and ultimately chewing up) a battery-operated toy is a common story.

M

Magnesium

Magnesium levels may rise temporarily from an overdose of a magnesium containing medication, like laxatives or antacids, or due to blood or muscle cell destruction that liberates a large amount of intracellular magnesium into the blood. Hypermagnesemia is less common in dogs than magnesium deficiency, but when it does occur, it can be associated with life-threatening problems.The following conditions are often associated with hypermagnesemia. Kidney failure Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hypothyroidism Overdose of magnesium containing medication laxatives, antacids, cathartics Pericardial effusion (fluid in the heart) Hemolysis (bursting red blood cells) Injury or necrosis of large amounts of muscle tissue

Mercury

Mercury poisoning used to be a common condition in people and their pets, but since the discovery of mercury replacement material for professional use, it has become much less common. However, there are still many things containing mercury that can affect your dog, such as fish, latex paint, fluorescent light bulbs, and button batteries. As a matter of fact, mercury is still found in high levels in many types of fish used in commercial canned pet food. While an occasional can of tuna or salmon may not be harmful, feeding this to your dog on a daily basis can be harmful within a few months because mercury builds up over time since it does not get expelled from the body readily.

Manganese

Manganese does not occur naturally as a free element, but is often found in combination with iron and in many minerals. It is one of a group of metals or minerals that are essential nutrients in dogs and cats. It only occurs in very small amounts in animal tissues; it is referred to as a trace element because the requirement for this mineral is relatively small.Manganese toxicity is basically unknown in dogs and cats.It is s not produced naturally, therefore, it must be obtained through healthy diets and pet supplements. Whether you are feeding your dog a raw diet or commercial kibble, the common factor is that you have to balance his minerals right.Too much of a mineral can cause toxicity and other health problems.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is classified as a metallic component and found broadly in nature in nitrogen-fixing microorganism such as bacteria. Molybdenum is an important mineral for human, animal and plant health. It particularly serves as a vital source of enzymes and aids in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.Molybdenum is an essential nutrient. Its main function is in removing toxins particularly from the metabolism of sulfur containing amino acids. aids in processing carbohydrates, is required for normal cell function and nitrogen metabolism, protects the body from excess copper.Deficiency: metabolic disorders accompanied by abnormal excretion of sulfur metabolites, low uric acid concentrations, and elevated hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion.
Toxicity: problems with the metabolism of copper in the body, diarrhea, anemia and slow growth.Sources: liver, brewer’s yeast, whole grains.

N

Nickel

Nickel is generally not recognized as an essential mineral for animals, though it is essential for other forms of life such as bacteria and plants.Because most dog and cat foods contain some plant ingredients, they will contain varying amounts of nickel. It is estimated that less than 10% of ingested nickel is absorbed, and the small amount that is absorbed is excreted in the urine.Consuming high amounts of nickel (100 mg/kg diet) for extended time periods is needed in order to observe nickel toxicosis in animals.Nickel toxicity is generally not considered a concern for domestic animals, except for a few localized areas where industry has increased environmental nickel levels.Nickel toxicity symptoms are generally displayed as gastrointestinal irritation.

Niobium

Niobium is used with iron and other elements in stainless steel alloys and also in alloys with a variety of nonferrous metals, such as zirconium,
Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.
Niobium is also used for jewelry. At cryogenic temperatures, niobium is a superconductor.Some niobium compounds are highly toxic.

R

Radium

Radium gives off gamma radiation, which can travel fairly long distances through air. Therefore, just being near radium at the high levels that may be found at some hazardous waste sites may be dangerous to your health.Exposure to radium caused serious health effects which included sores, anemia, and bone cancer. This is because radium is treated as calcium by the body, and deposited in the bones, where radioactivity degrades marrow and can mutate bone cells.Radium is used to produce radon, a radioactive gas used to treat some types of cancer.

Rubidium

Rubidium has no known biological role but has a slight slimulatory effect on metabolis, probably because it is like potassium. The two elements are found together in minerals and soils, although potassium is much more abundant than rubidium. Moderately toxic by ingestion. If rubidium ignites, it will cause thermal burns. Rubidium readily reacts with skin moisture to form rubidium hydroxide, which causes chemical burns of eyes and skin. Signs and symptoms of overexposure: skin and eye burns. Failure to gain weight, ataxia, hyper irritation, skin ulcers, and extreme nervousness.

Rhodium

Rhodium compounds are encountered relatively rarely. There are almost no reported cases of human or pets being affected by this element in any way. All rhodium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic and as carcinogenic. Compounds of rhodium stain the skin very strongly.Dust explosion is possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. Reacts with oxygen difluoride causing fire hazard.

Ruthenium

All ruthenium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic and as carcinogenic. Compounds of ruthenium stain the skin very strongly. It seems that ingested ruthenium is retained strongly in bones. It is used as a catalyst to harden other metals, and its alloys are used in electrical contacts and to colour glass and ceramics.It is used in some jewellery as an alloy with platinum.

P

Palladium

It is used in dental appliances, chemical catalysts, electrical appliances and jewelry, but the greatest increase in Pd demand has been in automotive emission control catalysts.Palladium is a metal with low toxicity. It is poorly absorbed by human body when digested.High doses of palladium could be poisonous; tests on rodents suggest it may be carcinogenic, though no clear evidence indicates the element harms humans or pets.

Platinum

The concentrations of platinum in the soil, water and air are very minimal. A danger of platinum is that it can cause potentiation of the toxicity of other dangerous chemicals in the body, such as selenium.

Phosphorus

Calcium and phosphorus are two other nutrients that can have a deleterious effect if fed in excess to dogs. Of particular importance is the ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the dog food. An abnormally high level of either nutrient may alter the proper ratio and have a negative effect on bones. This is especially true in the case of large breed dogs that are in their growth phase.Vast quantities of phosphorous are located in the bones and teeth, bonded with calcium. Therefore, bone diseases or problems such as bone resorption can cause excessive phosphates to be released in the dog’s bloodstream. Other underlying factors for hyperphosphatemia include:bone cancer, Osteoporosis, Kidney disease, Thyroid disease, Excessive dietary supplementation (e.g., vitamin D overdose)

Polonium

This material is highly dangerous, but it has a relatively short half-life. As a result, it ceases to be dangerous relatively quickly. It decays into a new, stable metal: lead.Polonium-210 is present in small amounts in the body, due to low levels in the normal environment and the food chain, especially in seafood. Tobacco smokers have more polonium-210 because smoking causes it to accumulates in the lungs.Polonium-210 is used in industry to make devices that remove static. This is useful for making tape, rolling paper, and spinning synthetic fibers, for example. It is also used to keep environments dust free, such as in the production of computer chips.Natural polonium is very rare.

O

Osmium

Osmium has no known biological role. The metal is not toxic, but its oxide is volatile and very toxic, causing lung, skin and eye damage.Osmium has only a few uses. It is used to produce very hard alloys for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, needles and electrical contacts. It is also used in the chemical industry as a catalyst.

S

Scandium

Scandium is not found free in nature but is found combined in minute amounts in over 800 minerals.Scandium has no biological role. Only trace amounts reach the food chain, so the average person’s daily intake is less than 0.1 microgram. Scandium is not toxic, although there have been suggestions that some of its compounds might be cancerogenic. Scandium is mostly dangerous in the working environment, due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air.Scandium is dumped in the environment in many different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries. It can also enter the environment when household equipment is thrown away. Scandium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils and this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles.

Silver

Silver has no known purpose in the body. Nor is it an essential mineral. While not classified as toxic, silver is a heavy metal, which means it can and does collect in organs like the liver, spleen, kidney, muscles, brain, and even the skin. Over time, organ damage can occur as more and more silver collects in these organs through prolonged use of colloidal silver.

Selenium

Selenium is an antioxidant which functions in conjunction with Vitamin E and certain enzymes to protect cells.High-protein plants such as cereals and meat products are good sources of selenium.Selenium toxicities in dogs or cats are rare, but can occur if the dietary intake exceeds 0.9 mg of selenium for every pound of food eaten (on a dry matter basis) for prolonged periods of time. Signs of selenium toxicity include hair loss, lameness, anemia, and liver cirrhosis.

Strontium

Strontium is a mineral found in seawater and soil. In your diet, you get it mainly from seafood, but you can also get small amounts of it in whole milk, wheat bran, meat, poultry, and root vegetables.It seems to play a role in how your body makes new bone while it slows the breakdown of old bone. There are no harmful effects of stable strontium in humans or pets at the levels typically found in the environment. The only chemical form of stable strontium that is very harmful by inhalation is strontium chromate, but this is because of toxic chromium and not strontium itself.

U

Uranium

Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal. It is found in small amounts in rocks, soil, water, and air and contributes to the weak background radiation that is found everywhere. Uranium ore is mined, milled, and then chemically concentrated by a process called “enrichment.” Uranium is used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons, and small amounts can be found in ceramic glazes, light bulbs, photographic chemicals, and other household products. As a result, we are exposed to small amounts of uranium daily. People can come into contact with larger amounts of uranium by working at nuclear power plants, weapons production facilities, or uranium mines and mills.Exposure to uranium generally occurs through inhalation and/or ingestion. Inhalation of airborne uranium dust is the most common means of workplace exposure. Once inhaled, uranium dust can leave the body through exhalation or urination. Workers may also be exposed to uranium at work through ingestion of uranium-contaminated food and water. If uranium is ingested, most of it will leave your body within a few days through your feces. However, at times, uranium can remain in the lungs, or it can enter the bloodstream, kidneys, and/or bones, possibly causing damage to these organ systems.

T

Thallium

Thallium is a heavy metal with an atomic weight and toxic effects similar to lead and mercury.Present in some rodenticides (eg mole, gopher bate) and other pesticides.

Titanium

There is no known biological role for titanium. There is a detectable amount of titanium in the human body and it has been estimated that we take in about 0.8 mg/day, but most passes through us without being adsorbed. It is not a poison metal and the body can tolerate titanium in large dose.

Tin

Tin resists corrosion from water, but can be attacked by acids and alkalis. Tin can be highly polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals. Because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is widely used for food packaging as tin cans.

Tungsten

Tungsten is a naturally occurring element that, in most environments, is a solid.Tungsten is released into air as fine dust-like particles by weathering.Tungsten in water originates mainly from dissolution of tungsten from rocks and soil that water runs over and through. Tungsten occurs naturally in soil as a mineral, or component of soil.You can be exposed to low levels of tungsten by breathing air, drinking water, or eating food that contains tungsten.Most of the tungsten that enters your blood is rapidly released from your body in the urine. When you eat or drink things containing tungsten, much of the tungsten passes through your digestive system and is released from your body in the feces.You are not likely to experience any health effects that would be related to exposure to tungsten

Z

Zinc

Zinc is one of the most important minerals for maintaining a healthy body, but excessive zinc can be harmful and can cause toxicity. More commonly referred to as zinc toxicity, it occurs when animals ingest an exorbitant amount of zinc-containing materials. Though mostly reported in small breed dogs, zinc toxicity can affect dogs of all sizes.Causes of zinc toxicity can come from ingestion of zinc-containing materials, such as:Nuts,Bolts, Staples, Nails, Board Games Pieces, Zippers, Toys, Jewelry, Pennies, certain lozenge brands, some lotions.

V

Vanadium

Vanadium is a mineral, and evidence from animal studies suggests it may be an essential micronutrient. In people as well as pets, there are no well-documented uses for vanadium, and there are serious safety concerns regarding its use. However, vanadium has been proposed to be of benefit to patients with diabetes as vanadium has insulin-like properties and may inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP).Studies in rats with and without diabetes suggest vanadium may have an insulin-like effect, reducing blood sugar levels. Based on promising animal studies, high doses of vanadium, like chromium, have been tested as an aid to controlling blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. However, animal studies suggest that taking high doses of vanadium can be harmful.