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A

Acetic acid

Used in vinegar

Almond

An edible nut, oval in shape with a woody shell. Often used in cooking / baking

Aniseed

The seeds of the anise – which are used in cooking and herbal medicines

Apple Tree

Trees that produce fruits.

Apricots (Raw)

A stone fruit, usually orange in color. A great source of Vitamin A

Aspen (Populus tremula)

Tree native to Europe and Asia

Aubergine

Purple egg shaped fruit (Also known as an Eggplant). Often eaten as a vegetable.

A-Lactalbumin

A major protein found in milk and obtained from whey. Whey protein and milks should be avoided

Anchovy

A small fish. Preserved in salt and oil.

Apple Juice

Juice made by squeezing the fruit.

Apples (Raw)

A fruit – numerous different species. Colors are usually green and red.

Asparagus

The young shoots of an Eurasian plant. Eaten as a vegetable.

Aspergillus Fumigatus

Fungus that is widespread in nature, typically found in soil and decaying organic matter such as compost heaps.

Avocado

A pear shaped fruit, with rough skin and oily edible flesh. Often eaten in salads, dips and cooking.

B

Bacon

A meat produced from the pig

Barley

A major cultivated cereal grain. Often in beer.

Beans (broad)

Small, flat beans. Green in color, also called fava beans.

Beans, lima

Small, kidney shaped beans – grown in the pod.

Beech (Fagus silvatica)

A deciduous tree belonging to the beech family. Known as common beech or European beech tree.

Beef Jerky

Beef that has been preserved and dried – often known as jerky.

Bell Pepper (green)

The pepper – green in color.

Bermuda grass

A creeping grass found in warmer climates.

Blackberries

Edible soft fruit. Often purple-black.

Brazil nut

A large, three-sided South American nut.

Bread – Rye

Bread made with flour from the rye grain.

Brown bread

A type of bread, made using whole wheat flour.

Buckwheat

Derived from the seeds of a flowering plant. Does not contain gluten.

Button Mushroom

The most common type of mushroom used in cooking.

Banana

A long, curved fruit with edible flesh and yellow skin.

Basil

An aromatic herb from the mint family.

Beans (green)

Long, thin green in color.

Bees

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination.

Beef

The flesh of a cow, bull or ox.

Beets (beetroot)

A dark red, rounded vegetable.

Bell Pepper (red)

The pepper – red in color.

Bilberries (Raw)

Very small, almost black berries.

B-Lactoglobulin

A major protein found in cow’s milk and sheep’s milk.

Bread – baguette

A staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Bread, white bread

Bread made with white wheat flour.

Brussel Sprouts

Small, compact bud of the cabbage family. Eaten as a vegetable.

Buttercup

Small flower with shiny yellow petals.

C

Cabbage – Green

Common vegetable. This type being green in color.

Cabbage – White

Variety of cabbage, white in color.

Capsicum (green)

Green pepper – used in cooking.

Capsicum (yellow)

Yellow pepper – often used to flavor cooking.

Cardamom

Aromatic seeds from the ginger family – used as a spice in cooking.

Cashew Nut

Edible kidney shaped nut. Rich in oil and protein.

Cauliflower

Edible variety of cabbage. Has a large white head and green leaves.

Cheddar

A relatively hard cheese that can differ in taste and texture.

Cherry tree

Tree which produces the fruit.

 

Chicken

Most common type of poultry.

Chickpea

Cultivated legume. High in protein.

Clams

An edible mollusk.

Clover (Triofolium spp.)

A flower usually found in fields and dry pastures.

Coconut Oil

An edible oil extracted from the coconut.

Colonial bent grass (Agrostis tenuis)

Grass that grows in moistlands and grasslands.

Cornflakes

A breakfast cereal made with toasted flakes of corn.

Cow’s Milk

Milk obtained from dairy cows.

Cranberries

Very small, red coloured fruit.

Cumin

Aromatic seed used as a spice.

Cabbage – Red

Variety of cabbage with red or purplish leaves.

Canaries

Small species of bird, most commonly yellow in color.

Capsicum (red)

Red pepper – often used in cooking.

Caraway

Seeds from a plant in the parsley family. Used in cooking/oils/seeds.

Carrot

Orange coloured, tapering root vegetable.

Cat

Common house pet

Celery (Raw)

Vegetable used in salads/cooking.

Cherries (raw)

A small stone fruit, usually red in color.

Chestnut Mushroom

Similar to the button mushroom, but have a brown top and more flavorful.

Chicken Droppings

Faeces and urine from this animal.

Cinnamon

Aromatic spice. Used in cooking/baking.

Clove

Used in Indian and Mexican dishes.

Co

A type of tree

Coffee (black)

Black coffee may refer to: Coffee, served as a beverage without cream or milk, and often without sugar as well.

Common Mussel

A shellfish also known as the ‘blue mussel’.

Cotton

A soft white fibrous substance which surrounds the seeds of the cotton plant and is made into textile fiber and thread for sewing.

Crab

A crustacean with edible flesh.

Cream

Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk.

D

Dill

Aromatic herb used for flavoring.

Duck

A water bird, known for its short legs and webbed feet.

Dust

Consists of particles from the atmosphere and environment, such as soil.

Dry Roasted Peanuts

The popular nut – roasted.

Duck Feathers

Feathers from the bird.

E

E 102 Tartrazine

Yellow food coloring.

E 122 Carmoisine

Red food color – in blancmange, marzipan, Swiss roll, jams and preserves, sweets, brown sauce, flavored yogurts, packet soups, jellies.

E 128 Rot 2 G

Red food color. Restricted use in confectionery and meat products.

E 140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins

Green food color.

E 142 Green

A green synthetic coal tar dye found in desserts, gravy granules, ice cream, mint sauce, sweets, packet breadcrumbs, cake mixes and tinned peas.

E 160 c Capsanthin, Capsorubin

Used widely in poultry feed to deepen the color of egg yolks it can also be found in cheese slices and chicken pies.

E 161 g Canthaxanthin

Orange food color. Slightly soluble in water. Widely used, also in tanning pills.

E 202 Potassium sorbate, sorbic acid

It can be found in candied peel, cheese, cider, concentrated fruit juice, dessert sauces, dried apricots, fillings and toppings, fermented milks, frozen pizzas.

E 220 Sulphur dioxide

Typically found in beers, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, and potato products.

E 222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite (Sulphur dioxide)

Preservative. May cause an allergic reaction in some people, especially asthmatics. Destroys vitamins B1 and E.

E 306 Natural tocopherols (Vitamin E)

An antioxidant for polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissue fats and is used in meat pies, desert toppings and vegetable oils as well as a vitamin supplement.

E 308 Gamma-tocopherol (Tocopherol)

An antioxidant for polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as a vitamin.

E 310 Propyl gallate (Gallate)

Used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging.

E 444 Sucrose-acetate-isobutyrate

A synthetic compound derived from cane sugar.

E 420 Sorbit, Sorbit syrup

Many bakery and confectionery products.

E 410 Locust bean gum, carob gum

Thickening agent, stabilizer and emulsifier.

E 406 Agar

Thickening agent and stabilizer in many products.

E 337 Sodium potassium tartrate (salts from tartaric acid)

In many products, mainly meat and cheese products.

E 321 Butylated hydroxytoluene

Used in vegetable oils, shortening, lard, fat, margarine, carbonated drinks, cheese spreads, chewing gum, ice cream, dry breakfast cereal.

Egg yolk

The yellow part of an egg.

Eel

Edible slender fish.

E322 Lecithin (E322)

Emulsifier and stabilizer of water-oil/fat mixtures. Used to soften chocolate.

E 640 Glycine and its sodium salts

Mainly used for yeast in bread. Also used as a bread enhancer.

E 460 Cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose powder

Found in sauces, soups, breads, biscuits and cakes, frozen desserts, margarine, spreads, jams, chocolate, quick-setting deserts and milk shakes.

E 451 Triphosphate, Phosphate

Emulsifier found in numerous products.

Elm (Ulmus glabra)

The most common of the Elm tree family.

E 104 Quinoline yellow

A synthetic ‘coal tar’ dye varying in color between a dull yellow and greenish-yellow. Found in ices, scotch eggs and smoked haddock.

E 124 Ponceau 4R

Red food color.

E 131 Patent blue V

Blue food coloring.

E 141 Chlorophylls

Green food color.

E 154 Brown FK

Brown food coloring. Restricted use – in some fish products.

E 161 b Lutein

Yellow food coloring. Rarely used. If used only in soups and alcoholic beverages.

E 170 Calcium carbonate

White color for surface coating; anti-caking agent, filling agent (pharmaceuticals), stabilizer in canned fruit.

E 211 Sodium benzoate, benzoic acid

Found in barbecue sauce, caviar, cheesecake mix, fruit pies, margarine, pickled cucumbers, pineapple juice, prawns, preserves, salad dressing, soya sauce, sweets and table olives.

E 221 Sodium sulphite (Sulphur dioxide)

Used as a decontaminating agent in fresh orange juice, and during sugar refining.

E 300 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Ascorbic acid also known as Vitamin C, essential for growth, healthy teeth, gums, bones, skin and blood vessels and aiding the absorption of iron, is found naturally in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Signs of deficiency – Easy bruising, dry skin, slow metabolism.

E 307 Alpha-tocopherol (Tocopherol)

An antioxidant and is used in pork pies and sausages as well as a vitamin supplement.

E 309 Delta-tocopherol (Tocopherol)

Found in most foods, it is abundant in, whole grain cereals, corn and cottonseed oils, egg yolks, meat and milk.

E 320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

Anti-oxidant in fats and fatty products to prevent rancidity.

E 450 Diphosphate, Phosphate

Found in many different products. Various diphosphates are used as emulsifiers, stabilizers, acidity regulators, raising agents, sequestrants, and water retention agents in food processing.

E 422 Glycerine

Bakery and confectionery products.

E 414 Gum arabic

Additive used in soft drinks and gummy sweets such as marshmallow, M&M’s and gumdrops.

E 407 a Eucheuma algae, treated

A type of red seaweed. Can be used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and some foods.

E 340 Monopotassium phosphate

It prevents desiccation and is used as an acid stabilizer in powder.

E 330 Citric acid

Large concentrations are found in citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries and many other fruits. Enhances the activity of many anti-oxidants.

Elder (Sambucus nigra)

The plant that produces the elderberry.

Egg white

The clear, viscous substance surrounding the egg yolk. Turns white when cooked.

E470 Sodium, potassium and calcium salts

Used in cake mixes and oven ready chips.

E 967 Xylitol

Low-calorie sweetener.

E 553 b Talc

Talcum powder – main use is cosmetics.

E 452 Polyphosphate

In many products.

F

Fennel Fresh

Aromatic flavorful herb often used in cooking.

Flaxseed

Also known as linseed – used in oils and baking.

G

Garlic

Pungent bulb, used in cooking and medicines.

Goose

A species of duck. The meat of the bird is widely eaten.

Goat’s Milk

Milk from the animal.

Ginger

Hot, fragrant spice. Used as a flavoring mainly but can be found chopped, powdered, preserved or candied.

Granary Bread

A type of bread made with malted wheat flakes – this gives the bread a noticeable texture.

Gelatin

Gelatin has the E number E441, It is in almost every gummy confectionery and also items like marshmallow, ice cream and even low fat yogurt.

Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea)

Solidago virgaurea is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae.

Goat

A domesticated animal. The flesh of this animal can be eaten.

Gooseberries (raw)

Small and firm but sometimes ribbed and translucent, gooseberries are a unique little plant-based food growing on relatively small, thorny bushes.

Grapefruit (Pink)

Large, round citrus fruit with edible flesh.

H

Halibut

Northern marine fish, eaten worldwide.

Hazel (Corylus avellana)

The common hazel tree.

Herring

Small, silvery fish. Widely eaten.

Honey

Sweet, sticky liquid made from nectar.

Horse

Flesh from a horse.

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

Aesculus hippocastanum is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.

Horses

A large, four-legged mammal.

Hare

Also known as jackrabbits. A larger animal within the rabbit family.

Hazelnuts

Small, brown edible nut from the hazel tree.

Herring (red)

A dried smoked herring, which is turned red by the smoke.

Hops

A stabilizing agent in Beer, also used in some deodorants, used in herbal remedies.

Horse Bot Fly

Type of fly which very often causes irritation to horses.

Horse radish

Root vegetable used as a spice, most commonly used as a sauce.

House Dust Mite

One of the biggest causes of allergies, lives in soft furnishings, mattresses, pillows, carpets etc.

I

Iceberg Lettuce

A type of lettuce.

J

Jasmine (Philadelphus spp.)

Plant with white flowers and strong fragrance.

Juniper bush

The plant which produces the juniper berry. Distinctive fragrance unlike most bushes.

K

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)

Common, smooth meadow grass.

L

Lactose

This indicates intolerance to lactose found within dairy milk.

Lamb’s liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.

Leather

Material made from the skin of an animal by tanning or other similar process.

Lentils

High protein pulse.

Lamb

Flesh of a young sheep.

Larch

A coniferous tree with bunches of deciduous bright green needles, found in cool regions of the northern hemisphere. It is grown for its tough timber and its resin (which yields turpentine).

Leek

Edible plant, eaten as a vegetable.

M

Mackerel

Frequently eaten fish. Greenish-blue in color.

Maize (Zea mays)

A plant – known also as corn.

Meadow fox tail (Alopecurus prat.)

A common type of grass.

Millet

Cereal mostly used to make flour.

Mustard (green)

Dark leafy green vegetable.

Mussels, general

Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve mollusks, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)

Aromatic plant. Occasionally used in food and beer.

Mistletoe

Common name for the plant which produces small white berries. Traditionally used to decorate the house during the festive period.

Maize

This is corn. It is used in products such as; corn flakes, polenta, tortillas.

Maple syrup

Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.

Mice

A small rodent, characterized by small pointy nose and small rounded ears.

Mustard

Hot tasting yellow paste. Eaten and used in cooking.

Mushrooms

A fungi frequently used in cooking.

Molasses

Molasses, or black treacle, is a viscous by-product of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

Mint (Fresh)

An aromatic plant often used in cooking.

Mutton

Flesh of a full grown sheep.

R

N

Noodles

Made from unleavened dough which is stretched, extruded, or rolled flat. This item is referring to ramen type noodles (found in ready to go noodles – Pot noodles, super noodles).

Nutmeg

A very common spice, related to mace.

O

Oak (Quercus robur)

Large tree. Native to Europe.

Okra

A vegetable also known as ladies fingers. Part of the mallow family.

Omega 3

A fatty acid which helps keep blood levels stable and helps ease joint stiffness/pain.

Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata)

Also known as cocksfoot grass.

Oyster

Edible mollusk with rough, hard shell.

Oyster sauce

Usually dark brown, a condiment made from oyster extracts.

P

Oats (porridge)

Also known as Oatmeal in the United States. Commonly eaten for breakfast.

Olive Oil

A liquid fat obtained from olives.

Onion

Pungent vegetable. Very commonly used in cooking.

Ox liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.

Oyster Mushroom

A commonly eaten wild mushroom.

Paprika

Red powdered spice used in cooking.

Peanuts

Grown underground, a popular nut.

Peas (field)

Slightly larger than garden peas – grown in pod

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

Also known as English ryegrass.

Pigeons

A small species of bird, known to populate urban areas.

Pine (Pinus spp.)

A conifer tree.

Pineapples

Large, juicy fruit with hard skin and edible yellow flesh.

Plums

Oval, fleshy stone fruit. Small and often red or purple in color.

Pork

Flesh of a pig.

Potatoes

Starchy plant. Very common food.

Privet (Ligustrum spp.)

Heavily scented shrub with poisonous black berries.

Pumpkin

Large orange fruit. Flesh used for cooking.

Q

Peaches (raw)

Round stone fruit with juicy flesh.

Peas – garden

Small, round and green seed. Eaten as a vegetable.

Pepper (black)

Dried fruit from the pepper vine family of Piperaceae. Used whole as peppercorns or ground and used in cooking for spice/flavor.

Pigeon Droppings

Feces and urine from this animal.

Pig’s liver

The liver of the animal. Widely eaten.

Pine Nut

The edible seed from various pine trees.

Plaice

Large, flat fish. Widely eaten.

Poplar (Populus spp.)

Deciduous flowering tree.

Pork sausages

Meat product made using ground meat, which is put into casing.

Prawns

A seafood which resembles a large shrimp.

Prunes (raw)

A prune is a dried plum.

Quince

Similar to the pear in appearance, usually golden-yellow when mature.

R

Quinoa

Cultivated crop with starchy seeds.

Rabbit

Small plant eating animal.

Raisins (raw)

A partially dried grape.

Rats

Rodent, commonly known as a pest in urban environments.

Rice – Brown

Small brown grains.

Rock candy

Rock candy (also called rock sugar) is a type of confection composed of relatively large sugar crystals.

Rose (Rosa spp.)

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa.

Rye

A grass grown extensively as a grain, foods containing rye, include bread and crackers.

S

Ragweed (Ambrosia elatior)

A plant. A major cause of hay-fever.

Raspberries (raw)

An edible soft fruit related to the blackberry, consisting of a cluster of reddish-pink drupelets.

Red Kidney Bean

Small bean, deep red in color.

Rice – white

Small white grains.

Roe-deer

Also as a roe-buck.

Rosemary

A perennial herb – used for flavoring.

Sage

Aromatic herb used in cooking.

Salt

A mineral commonly used for flavor.

Sesame seed

Oil rich seeds from the sesame plant.

Sheep’s Milk

Milk from the Sheep.

Shitake Mushroom

A type of mushroom high in vitamin B & D.

Smoked herring

Whole fish cold-smoked.

Sour Cream

Made by fermenting cream. A naturally thick dairy product.

Soya

Includes all products made with the soya bean.

Spelt

A type of wheat, also known as dinkel wheat.

Spruce (Picea abies)

A coniferous evergreen tree.

Strawberries (Raw)

Edible, sweet fruit. Red with seed studded skin.

Sugar, white

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

Swede

Large, yellow fleshed root vegetable.

Sweet Potato

A type of potato – sweet in taste and orange in color.

T

Salmon

Large, usually pink fish. Very popular food.

Sardine

Young pilchard, widely eaten.

Soya Bean

Bean of the soya plant. Very high in protein.

Soy sauce

A Chinese condiment made with soybeans.

Sole

Edible flat fish.

Shrimp

Small crustacean, often eaten.

Shellfish

Some crustaceans commonly eaten are shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, and crabs.

Sheep’s wool

Textile fiber obtained from sheep.

Sunflower oil

Oil extracted by compressing the seeds of the sunflower.

Sugar, Brown

Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

A plant, that if touched stings the skin.

Spinach

Edible, dark green vegetable. Often used in cooking.

Sweet Freedom

A sweetener made from 100% fruit.

Tea (Black)

This is normal ‘Tetley’ type tea and it does include tea with milk in.

Tomato

Red fruit. Eaten as a vegetable in salads and used in cooking.

Trout (sea)

A type of trout fish.

Tuna

A commonly eaten type of fish. a sub group of the mackerel family.

Turmeric

Aromatic powder used in cooking.

V

Thyme

An aromatic evergreen herb.

Trout (Brown)

Freshwater fish, often eaten.

Tulip

The tulip is a Eurasian and North African genus of perennial, bulbous plants in the lily family.

Turkey, hen

Flesh from the bird.

Turnip

A root vegetable, purple and white in color.

Vanilla

Substance from vanilla pods, often used as flavoring.

Vegetable fat I

They can be made from any vegetable oils and some varieties have the advantage over animal fats that they are high in polyunsaturates.

Vinegar (clear)

Most common in American household.

Veal

Flesh of a baby calf.

Venison

Meat from a deer.

Vinegar (malt)

Brown liquid often used for seasoning / adding flavor to food.

W

Wallflower (Cheiranthus cheiri)

A widely cultivated flowering plant.

Wasp

A social insect, known for its tendency to sting. Typically black and yellow.

Wheat, ground

The cereal grain in its ground form.

White Bean

White bean, usually dried. Also known as the navy bean.

Whitefish

Common name for several species of fish – including cod, haddock, hake and pollock.

Willow

Type of tree.

Wool

The fine, soft curly or wavy hair forming the coat of a sheep, goat, or similar animal, especially when shorn and prepared for use in making cloth or yarn.

Y

Walnuts

Edible seed eaten raw or used in cooking / baking.

Water reed (Phragmites communis)

A tall grass found in reed beds.

Wheat, whole grain

Cereal grain.

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

A plant and herb. Used in absinthe, also used as a flavoring for some wines and spirits.

Winkles

Small edible sea snail.

Wild oat (Avena fatua)

A species of grass from the oat family.

White pepper

Spice made from white peppercorns.

Yeast

Type of fungus used in making alcohol and baking.