Please note there are minerals included in the list below that are important for your body to stay healthy. They are only harmful with excessive exposure.

A

Aluminum (Al)

It is commonly found in most water (except filtered and bottled).  Sufficient levels can be found in plants, cereals, fruits, and vegetables due to high concentrations in the ground. However, there is none found in herbs, spices, and teas. It is quite common in doughs and processed cheese.  It is common in everyday items like transport, household products, packaging, and lighting. It is used in some antiperspirants, and many over the counter medications contain quite high levels of aluminum.

Possible Symptoms of Aluminum toxicity can include memory loss, learning difficulty, loss of coordination, disorientation, mental confusion, disturbed sleep, colic, heartburn, flatulence, and headaches.

Arsenic (As)

Arsenic appears in many minerals and is a metallic grey color in its raw form. It is used in pesticides, wood products, and is notoriously poisonous. Commonly found in rice products and many rooted vegetables.

Possible Symptoms of Arsenic toxicity can cause headaches, confusion, severe diarrhea, and drowsiness. In intense exposure, it can cause death.

Antimony (Sb)

This is a shiny grey metal and is hugely flame retardant. It is often used in cosmetics, army supplies, and cables.

Possible Symptoms of Antimony toxicity can cause headaches, nausea, dizziness, and depression. Large doses cause vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort and tingling in the extremities.

B

Beryllium (Be)

It is commonly found in x-ray machines, vehicle electronics and also used in aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, and satellites.

Possible Symptoms of  Beryllium toxicity include conjunctivitis, skin irritation, skin ulcers, nausea, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, eye irritation and in severe cases pneumonia.

Boron (B)

Boron can be released into air, water, or soil after natural weathering of soils and rocks. Smaller amounts of Boron can be released from glass manufacturing plants, coal-burning power plants, copper smelters, agricultural fertilizer and pesticide usage.  Boric acid, anhydrous sodium tetraborate, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax) are found in consumer products such as: laundry detergent, pesticides, facial creams and cleaners, plant foods, household cleaners.

Possible Symptoms of Boron toxicity include skin inflammation and peeling, irritability, tremors, convulsions, weakness, headaches, depression, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Bromine (Br)

Bromine can be perceived as an alternative to chlorine in swimming pools.  Products containing Bromine are used in agriculture and sanitation and as fire retardants.

Possible Symptoms of breathing Bromine gas could cause you to cough, have trouble breathing, get a headache, have irritation of your mucous membranes (inside your mouth, nose, etc.), be dizzy, or have watery eyes. Getting Bromine liquid or gas on your skin could cause skin irritation and burns. Liquid Bromine that touches your skin may first create a cooling sensation that is closely followed by a burning feeling.  Swallowing Bromine-containing compounds cause different effects depending on the mixture. Swallowing a significant amount of Bromine in a short period would be likely to cause symptoms such as nausea and vomiting.

Barium (Ba)

Barium is a very abundant, naturally occurring metal and is used for a variety of industrial purposes. Barium compounds, such as barium-nickel alloys are used for spark-plug electrodes and in vacuum tubes as a drying and oxygen-removing agent; barium sulfide is used in fluorescent lamps, and in diagnostic medicine; barium nitrate and chlorate give fireworks a green color. Barium compounds are used in drilling muds, paint, bricks, ceramics, glass, and rubber.

Possible Symptoms of short-term exposure to Barium can cause vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, difficulties in breathing, increased or decreased blood pressure, numbness around the face, and muscle weakness.  Large amounts of barium intake can cause high blood pressure, changes in heart rhythm or paralysis and possibly death.

Bismuth (Bi)

It is slightly radioactive. Bismuth has low toxicity and is found in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals including Pepto-Bismol.

Possible Symptoms of Bismuth toxicity include confusion, decreased appetite, weight loss, weakness, joint pain, skin rash, tremors, diarrhea and staining on gums.

C

Cadmium (Cd)

It is commonly found in batteries (mainly rechargeable), electroplating, televisions, and paints. There are also large quantities found in food products such as spinach, potatoes, shellfish, and offal. It is one of the most toxic ingredients in cigarettes.

Possible Symptoms of Cadmium toxicity include fatigue, headaches, vomiting, anemia and in more severe cases kidney dysfunction and emphysema.

Copper (Cu)

It is soft and malleable and red/orange in color. It is a great conductor of heat and electricity. It is often found in many household fittings including electrical wiring, roofing, and plumbing.

Symptoms of Copper toxicity include headaches, insomnia, fatigue, depression, learning difficulties and skin rashes.

Cobalt (Co)

 It used as a blue pigment for jewelry but had to be stopped due to the number of reactions it caused. It can commonly be found in lithium batteries and electroplating.

Possible Symptoms of Cobalt toxicity include gastro issues, tinnitus, and respiratory diseases.

Chromium (Cr)

Chromium is a steely-grey hard metal with a high melting point. It is mostly used to harden steel and other services to resist corrosion.

Possible Symptoms of Chromium toxicity may be dermatitis, ulcers that form little holes in the skin and possible occupational asthma.

Caesium (Cs)

It is highly unlikely that you would be exposed to high enough amounts of stable Cesium to cause harmful health effects. Laboratory animals given vast quantities of Cesium compounds showed changes in behavior, such as increased or decreased activity.

Possible Symptoms of exposure to large amounts of radioactive Cesium can damage cells in your body from the radiation. You might also experience acute radiation syndrome, which includes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, coma, and even death in cases of very high exposures.

Cerium

Cerium makes up about 0.0046% of the earth’s crust. Cerium is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights. Cerium is also a component of Misch metal, a material that is used to make flints for lighters. Cerium is also used as a catalyst to refine petroleum and as an alloying agent to make special metals. Used in glass products, glass polish cleaner, self-cleaning ovens, and in incandescent lantern mantles.

Possible Symptoms : Can cause lung embolisms, especially during long-term exposure. Cerium can be a threat to the liver when it accumulates in the human body.

D

Dysprosium

 

A rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Dysprosium is used, in conjunction with vanadium and other elements, in making laser materials and commercial lighting. Dysprosium is increasingly in demand for the permanent magnets used in electric car motors and wind turbine generators.

Possible Symptoms

Mildly toxic when ingested. Based on the toxicity of dysprosium chloride to mice, it is estimated that the ingestion of 500 grams or more could be fatal to a human.

E

Erbium

A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. Humans consume 1 milligram of erbium a year on average. The highest concentration of erbium in humans is in the bones, but there is also erbium in the human kidneys and liver. Used in infrared absorbing glass, for example safety glasses for welders and metal workers. When erbium is added to glass it gives the glass a pink tinge. It is used to give color to some sunglasses and imitation gems. Also used in broadband signals, carried by fibre optic cables, and are amplified by including erbium in the glass fiber.

Possible Symptoms : Erbium is slightly toxic if ingested, but erbium compounds are not toxic. Metallic erbium in dust form presents a fire and explosion hazard. Erbium has no biological role even if it has been noted that it stimulates metabolism.

Europium

A moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. It is a dopant in some types of glass in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Europium oxide is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. Color TV screens contain between 0.5 and 1 g of europium oxide.

Possible Symptoms : Europium has no known biological role. Europium salts could be mildly toxic by ingestion, but its toxicity has not been fully investigated. Except for its tendency to catch fire, little information is available on the health effects of europium. In general, it is regarded as toxic and must be handled with great caution.

G

Germanium (Ge)

Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid.

Germanium oxide is added to glass to increase the index of refraction; such glass is used in wide-angle lenses and infrared devices. Numerous alloys containing Germanium have been prepared. High purity Germanium single crystal detectors can precisely identify radiation sources (e.g., for airport security).

Possible Symptoms of Germanium toxicity can be gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, anorexia and weight loss, possible peripheral neuropathy and myopathy.

Gold (Au)

It is often found in jewelry, but it is also edible and is used in some foods and drinks.

Possible Symptoms of Gold toxicity include headaches, vomiting, dermatitis, jaundice, and pneumonitis.

Gandolinium

A silvery-white, malleable, and ductile rare earth metal. It is found in nature only in oxidized form, and even when separated, it usually has impurities of the other rare earths. Typically used in MRI scans to improve the clarity of the images or pictures of your body’s internal structures.

 

Gallium (Ga)

Gallium is an element found in the body, but it occurs in a tiny amount. It has no proven benefit towards the function of the body, and it most likely is only present due to small traces in the natural environment, in water, and in residue on vegetables and fruits. Several vitamins and commercially distributed waters have been known to contain trace amounts of gallium with less than one part per million.

Possible Symptoms of Gallium toxicity can include hyper excitability, photophobia, rapid weight loss, mucosal irritation, and gastrointestinal distress.

H

Hafnium (Hf)

Hafnium metal does not typically cause problems, but all Hafnium compounds should be regarded as toxic although initial evidence would appear to suggest the danger is limited. The metal dust presents a fire and explosion hazard.  Hafnium metal has no known toxicity. The metal is completely insoluble in water, saline solutions or body chemicals. Exposure to Hafnium can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.

Possible Symptoms of overexposure to Hafnium and its compounds may cause mild irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.

Holmium

Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable element that is fairly corrosion-resistant and stable in dry air at standard temperature and pressure. In moist air and at higher temperatures, however, it quickly oxidizes, forming a yellowish oxide. In pure form, holmium possesses a metallic, bright silvery luster.

Possible Symptoms : Large amounts of holmium salts can cause severe damage if inhaled, consumed orally, or injected. The biological effects of holmium over a long period of time are not known. Holmium has a low level of acute toxicity

I

Iron (Fe)

Can be found in meat, whole meal products, potatoes, and vegetables. The human body absorbs Iron in animal products faster than Iron in plant products. Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin; the red coloring agent of the blood that transports oxygen through our bodies.

Possible Symptoms of Iron Toxicity may include conjunctivitis, choroiditis, and retinitis if it contacts and remains in the tissues. Chronic inhalation of excessive concentrations of iron oxide fumes or dust may result in the development of benign pneumoconiosis, called siderosis, which is observable as an x-ray change.

L

Lead (Pb)

It is found in paint, ink, batteries, soldering, car fuel and is common in many plants. It is used in many weapons and also in the manufacturing of cars.

Possible Symptoms of Lead toxicity include a headache, abdominal pain, kidney failure, memory loss and many aspects of weakness and pain especially of the extremities.

Lutetium

Lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) is currently used in detectors in positron emission tomography (PET). This is a noninvasive medical scan that creates a three-dimensional image of the body’s cellular activity.

Possible Symptoms : Lutetium is considered non-toxic.

Lithium (Li)

The main Lithium compound is the Lithium hydroxide. It’s a white powder; the manufactured material is Monohydrate Lithium Hydroxide. The carbonate can be used in the pottery industry and medicine as an antidepressant. The Bromine and the lithium Chloride both form concentrated brine, which have the property of absorbing the humidity in a wide interval of temperature; these brines are used in the manufactured air conditioning systems.  The primary industrial use of Lithium is in Lithium Stearate form, as lubricant grease’s thickener. Other important applications of Lithium compounds are in pottery, specifically in porcelain glaze; as an additive to extend the life and performance of alkaline storage batteries and in autogenous welding and brass welding.

Possible Symptoms of Lithium toxicity from inhalation can include a burning sensation, cough, labored breathing, shortness of breath or sore throat. Delayed symptoms may include skin redness, skin burns, pain, blisters, or eye redness. Ingestion of Lithium can include abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, burning sensation, nausea, shock or collapse, vomiting and weakness.

M

Magnesium (Mg)

It is used in fireworks, photographic light bulbs and is often added to missile fuel.

Possible Symptoms of Magnesium toxicity are diarrhea and nausea.

Mercury (Hg)

It is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature, and it is silver in color. Mercury can be found in many electrical outlets around the home. It is also found in some household medicines and can still be used in some dental fillings. It is present in neon signs and even used in mascara. It can be found in many kinds of seafood and some freshwater fish.

Possible Symptoms of Mercury toxicity are far and wide as it can affect any area of the body. It can change the nervous system, the gastro area, the head and neck and even the cardiovascular system.

Manganese (Mn)

It is often combined with Iron and is most commonly used in stainless steels. It can be used to combat rust and corrosion in other metals. It is frequently found in coins as well as in most stainless steel and rust preventative products. Manganese is essential to the body, and only high exposure is usually an issue for people.

Possible Symptoms of Manganese toxicity include anemia, tremors, and stiff muscles.

Molybdenum (Mo)

The primary use of Molybdenum is in the commercial and industrial industries where it plays a significant role in manufacturing.

Possible Symptoms can include itchy eyes and coughing, but in chronic exposure, it may cause anorexia, diarrhea and extreme joint pain.

N

Niobium (Nb)

Niobium is used for the production of high-temperature-resistant alloys and special stainless steels. Niobium Carbide is used in cutting tools. It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets, missiles, cutting tools, pipelines, super magnets and welding rods. Niobium-tin and Niobium-titaniumalloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing exceedingly strong magnetic fields. Niobium is also used in its pure form to make superconducting accelerating structures for particle accelerators. Niobium alloys are used in surgical implants because they do not react with human tissue.

Possible Symptoms for Niobium and its compounds are very limited – Niobium dust causes eye and skin irritation, but there are no reports of a human being poisoned by it. Apart from measuring its concentration, no research on Niobium in humans has been undertaken. Niobium, when inhaled, is retained mainly in the lungs, and secondarily in bones. It interferes with Calcium as an activator of enzyme systems.

Nickel (Ni)

It is used in many coins and also is commonly used to make magnets. It is present in some foods including bananas. It is another one of the primary toxic ingredients in tobacco products.

Possible Symptoms of Nickel toxicity include skin rash, nausea, headaches, vomiting, chest pain, weakness, and coughing.

O

Osmium (Os)

The metal is used in a few alloys and the industry as a catalyst. At one time it was to be encountered in the nibs of high-quality fountain pens, compass needles, long-life gramophone needles and clock bearings, thanks to its extreme hardness and corrosion resistance.

Possible Symptoms of Osmium toxicity can include eye irritation, skin irritation, and irritation to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of this substance may cause lung edema. The effects may be delayed. Effects of long-term or repeated exposure or prolonged contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The substance may have effects on the kidneys.

P

Phosphorus (P)

Concentrated Phosphoric acids are used in fertilizers for agriculture and farm production. Phosphates are used for special glasses, sodium lamps, in steel production, in military applications (incendiary bombs, smoke screenings, etc.), and in other applications as pyrotechnics, pesticides, toothpaste, and detergents.

Possible Symptoms of Phosphorus toxicity can cause health problems, such as kidney damage and osteoporosis. Phosphate shortages can also occur. These are caused by extensive use of medicine.

Palladium (Pd)

It is a rare metal and is silver/white color. It has many uses including jewelry, dentistry, watches, blood sugar strips and in many aircraft and medical products.

Possible Symptoms of Palladium toxicity include extreme tiredness confusion, sore throat, migraines, blisters on the body, pain in the teeth and jaw and impairment of the immune system.

Praseodymium

Praseodymium is used in high-intensity permanent magnets, which are essential in electric motors and generators used in hybrid cars and wind turbines. Praseodymium is used in nickel metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries for hybrid automobiles. The metal is used as an alloying agent with magnesium creating a high-strength metal for aircraft engines. It is used to make specialized yellow glass goggles for glass blowers and welders. Praseodymium salts are used to color glasses and enamels.Praseodymium is also used in the core of high-intensity carbon arc lights used by the film industry and in floodlighting.

Possible Symptoms : Like all rare metals praseodymium is of low to moderate toxicity. Soluble praseodymium salts are mildly toxic by ingestion, but insoluble salts are non toxic. They are skin and eye irritants. Praseodymium is mostly dangerous in the working environment, due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air. This can cause lung embolisms, especially during long-term exposure. Praseodymium can be a threat to the liver when it accumulates in the human body.

Polonium (Po)

Polonium was once used in textile mills (to eliminate static charges) and by the manufacturers of photographic plates (in brushes to remove the accumulated dust). It is used as a source of alfa-radiation for research and, alloyed with Beryllium it can act as a portable source of neutrons, which generally only access to a nuclear reactor can provide.  Polonium is studied in a few nuclear research laboratories where its high radioactivity as an alpha-emitter requires special handling techniques and precautions.  Polonium -210 is the only component of cigarette smoke that has produced cancer by itself in laboratory animals by inhalation – tumors appeared already at a Polonium level five times lower than those of a typical heavy smoker.

Possible Symptoms of Polonium toxicity can include nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hair loss, lowered white blood cell count, diarrhea, and damage to bone marrow.

Platinum (Pt)

The most significant use (50%) of Platinum is for jewelry, another 20% is used in industry: chemical, electrical, glass and aircraft industries, optical fibers and liquid crystal display glass, surgical tools, and lab utensils. Platinum as a metal is not very dangerous, but Platinum salts can cause several health effects, such as:  DNA alterations, cancer, allergic reactions of the skin and the mucous membrane, damage to organs, such as intestines, kidneys and bone marrow, and hearing damage.  Finally, a danger of Platinum is that it can cause potentiation of the toxicity of other dangerous chemicals in the human body, such as Selenium. Platinum is emitted into the air through the exhausts of cars that use leaded gasoline. Consequently, Platinum levels in the atmosphere may be higher on specific locations, for instance in garages, in tunnels and on terrains of trucking companies.

Possible Symptoms of Platinum toxicity can include digestive issues, muscle spasms, high blood pressure, deafness, and skin irritations.

R

Rhodium (Rh)

These alloys are used in furnace windings, pen nibs, phonograph needles, high-temperature thermocouple and resistance wires, electrodes for aircraft spark plugs, bearings, and electrical contacts.  The metal itself is used to plate jewelry and the reflectors of searchlights, due to its brilliance and resistance to tarnish,
It is also a highly useful catalyst in many industrial processes, such as the BP-Monsanto process. All Rhodium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic and as carcinogenic. Compounds of Rhodium stain the skin very strongly.

Possible Symptoms may include, cough, eye redness, and urticaria.

Rhenium

A silvery-white, malleable, and ductile rare earth metal. It is found in nature only in oxidized form, and even when separated, it usually has impurities of the other rare earths. Typically used in MRI scans to improve the clarity of the images or pictures of your body’s internal structures.

Possible Symptoms : Can cause pain, aching; burning, tingling, and or prickling pain (paresthesia); deep bone pain, typically in extremities or joints, and sometimes in the location where an MRI occurred, like the head; Dermal changes – like tight skin, lesions, hyper-pigmentation. Most often in extremities; Muscle issues – twitching – small, local, rapid contractions and weakness; Ocular problems – worsening vision, dry eyes, bloodshot eyes; Cognitive symptoms; Ear, nose and throat – tinnitus, swallowing, and voice problems; Low body temperature; Hair loss; Itchy skin; Balance problems; Swelling of extremities (edema)

Ruthenium (Ru)

Ruthenium is used as an essential component in superalloys for blades in turbine engines.  Ruthenium is an ideal metal for use at very high temperatures, which makes it suitable for rockets motors. Ruthenium is added to Tungsten and Molybdenum to form alloys that are used as filaments for ovens and lamps. It is also used in thermocouples which can measure temperatures above 2000 C, and for electrical contacts which stand up well to electric arcs.

Possible Symptoms may include eye irritation and skin irritation. The liquid may cause burns to skin and eyes. Ingestion: May irritate the digestive tract. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation.  Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation.

Radium (Ra)

Radium is used in luminous paint. Radium is used in medicine to produce radon gas, used for cancer treatment. At the beginning of the 19th-century radium was used as an additive in products like toothpaste, hair creams, and even food items.  Radium levels in the environment have significantly increased as a result of human activity. Humans release Radium into the atmosphere by burning coal and other fuels. Radium levels in drinking water may be high when it is extracted from deep wells that are located near radioactive waste disposal sites.  There is no evidence that exposure to naturally present levels of Radium has harmful effects on human health. However, exposure to higher levels of Radium may result in health effects, such as teeth fracture, and cataract. These effects may take years to develop. They are usually caused by gamma radiation of Radium, which can travel relatively long distances through the air. Therefore, contact with Radium is not necessary, for it to cause health effects.

Possible Symptoms of Radium toxicity may include chronic infections, fragile teeth, impaired immunity, osteomyelitis, and bone destruction.

Rubidium (Rb)

Rubidium and its salts have few commercial uses. The metal is used in the manufacture of photocells and the removal of residual gases from vacuum tubes. Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics and in fireworks to give them a purple color. Potential uses are in ion engines for space vehicles, as working fluid in vapor turbines, and a getter in vacuum tubes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. If Rubidium ignites, it will cause thermal burns. Rubidium readily reacts with skin moisture to form Rubidium Hydroxide, which causes chemical burns of eyes and skin.

Possible Symptoms of overexposure: skin and eye burns, failure to gain weight, ataxia, hyper irritation, skin ulcers, and extreme nervousness. Medical condition aggravated by exposure: heart patients, potassium imbalance.

S

Samarium

Samarium’s main use is in samarium-cobalt alloy magnets for headphones, small motors and pickups for some electric guitars.
Samarium oxide (samaria) is used as a catalyst for the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol. Samarium oxide is also used in infrared absorbing glass.

Possible Symptoms : if absorbed through the skin, swallowed or inhaled, it may cause skin, respiratory tract, and eye irritation.

Selenium (Se)

The second most extensive use of Selenium is in the glass industry: Selenium is used to remove color from glass, to give a red tint to glasses and enamels. The third use is Sodium Selenite for animal feeds and food supplements. Other methods of Selenium are in metal alloys such as the lead plates used in storage batteries and in rectifiers to convert AC in DC. Some Selenium compounds are added to anti-dandruff shampoos.  Humans may be exposed to Selenium in several different ways. Selenium exposure takes place either through food or water or when we come in contact with soil or air that contains high concentrations of Selenium.

Possible Symptoms can include dizziness, fatigue, and irritations of the mucous membranes, brittle hair and deformed nails, rashes, heat, swelling of the skin and severe pains. When the exposure is extremely high, a collection of fluid in the lungs and bronchitis may occur.

Scandium (Sc)

Scandium is one of the rare chemicals, that can be found in houses in equipment such as color televisions, fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps, and glasses. Scandium is dumped in the environment in many different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries. It can also enter the environment when household equipment is thrown away. Scandium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils, and this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles.  With water animals, Scandium causes damage to cell membranes, which has several negative influences on reproduction and the functions of the nervous system. Scandium is most dangerous in the working environment because damps and gasses can be inhaled with air.

Possible Symptoms may include skin irritations, writhing, loss of muscle control, labored respiration, sedation, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse. This can cause lung embolisms, especially during long-term exposure. Scandium can be a threat to the liver when it accumulates in the human body.

Strontium (Sr)

This yellowish metallic element is highly reactive. It is used in cathode ray tubes.

Possible Symptoms begin with a skin rash and progress to violent flu-like symptoms and an increased white blood cell count. The organs of the liver, kidneys, and lungs can be severely damaged if exposure continues.

Silver (Ag)

It is commonly used in jewelry and can be mixed with Mercury and used in fillings. It is used in many photography products and is still used in many household medicinal products.

Possible Symptoms of Silver toxicity include headaches, severe joint pain, fatigue, skin irritation, heart palpitations and increased levels of mucus.

T

Thallium (Tl)

Thallium sulfate is still sold in developing countries where it is still permitted as a pesticide, although banned in western countries. Thallium occurs in the environment naturally in small amounts. It is not applied very widely by humans, merely as rat poison and as a substance in electro-technical and chemical industries. These applications can cause human exposure to Thallium substances.  The human body absorbs Thallium very effectively, primarily through the skin, the breathing organs and the digestive tract. Thallium poisoning is mainly caused by the accidental uptake of rat poison, which contains large amounts of Thallium sulfate. With unborn children, Thallium poisoning can cause congenital disorders.

Possible Symptoms may include tiredness, headaches, depression, lack of appetite, leg pains, hair loss and disturbances of the sight. Stomachaches are possible and the nervous system will be damaged.

Tantalum (Ta)

Tantalum finds use in four areas: high-temperature applications, such as aircraft engines; electrical devices, such as capacitors; surgical implants and handling corrosive chemicals. It is rarely used as an alloying agent because it tends to make metals brittle. Tantalum resists corrosion and is almost impervious to chemical attack, for this reason, it has been employed in chemical industry, e.g., for a heat exchanger in boilers where strong acids are vaporized.

Possible Symptoms may include eye and skin irritations, irritation to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract.

Tungsten (W)

Tungsten is used in filaments in incandescent light bulbs, and it is also used in electric contacts and arc-welding electrodes. Tungsten is used in alloys, such as steel, to which it imparts excellent strength. Cement carbide is the most critical use of Tungsten: its main component is Tungsten carbide (WC). It has the strength of our cast iron, and it makes excellent cutting tools for the machining of steel. x-ray tubes for medical use have a Tungsten emitter coil, and the screen used to view x-rays rely on Calcium and Magnesium Tungstate Phosphors to convert x-rays into the visible blue light. Tungsten is also used in microchip technology and liquid crystals displays.

Possible Symptoms of Tungsten toxicity may include irritation to the skin and eyes on contact. Inhalation will irritate the lungs and mucous membrane. Irritation to the eyes will cause watering and redness. Reddening, scaling, and itching is characteristics of skin inflammation.

Titanium (Ti)

It is found in most things including rocks, water, and soil. It is used in aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. It is also used in the manufacture of cars, bikes, sports equipment and even spectacles. It is sometimes used in jewelry and medical procedures. It is now being used in dentistry as a teeth replacement product.

Possible Symptoms of Titanium toxicity include eye irritation, eye issues, skin pain, sore throats, vomiting, mouth and nose irritations and shortness of breath.

Tin (Sn)

 It is mainly used in soldering with 52% of all Tin being used in this way. It is also used as a coating and in food preservation. It is found in many industrial produced fruit juices.

Possible Symptoms of Tin toxicity include cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, chills and many gastro issues.

U

Uranium (U)

Uranium gained importance with the development of practical uses of nuclear energy. Phosphate fertilizers are made from material typically high in Uranium, so they usually contain high amounts of it.  Although Uranium is radioactive, it is not particularly rare. It is widely spread throughout the environment, and so it is impossible to avoid Uranium. Uranium can be found naturally in the environment in minimal amounts in rocks, soil, air, and water. Humans add Uranium metals and compounds because they are released during mining and milling processes.  People always experience exposure to a certain amount of Uranium from food, air, soil, and water, as it is naturally present in all these components. Food, such as root vegetables, and water will provide us with small amounts of natural Uranium, and we will breathe in minimal concentrations of Uranium with air. The levels of Uranium in seafood are usually so low that they can be safely ignored.  People that live near hazardous waste sites, people that live near mines, people that work in the phosphate industry, people that eat crops grown on contaminated soil or people that drink water from a Uranium waste disposal point may experience a higher exposure than other people.

Possible Symptoms of Uranium toxicity may include bleeding gums, scurvy, easy bruising, irritated eyes, chronic fatigue, gastrointestinal upset, infertility, osteoporosis, thyroid problems, nervous system problems, mental health issues, and radiation poisoning symptoms.

V

Vanadium (V)

It is very rarely found on its own as it is chemically combined in nature. It is used in nuclear applications, rust-resistant springs, and high-speed tools.

Possible Symptoms of Vanadium toxicity can include fever, chills, headache, cough, anorexia or ear infection.

Z

Zinc (Zn)

Zinc is used in paints, rubber production, in photocopying and as a wood preservative. It is also used in televisions and x-rays.

Possible Symptoms of Zinc toxicity include burning sensation, chills, convulsions, rash, shortness of breath and vomiting.

Zirconium (Zr)

Used in catalytic converters, percussion caps, and furnace bricks. Baddeleyite and impure Zirconium (Zirconia) are used in lab crucibles. Zircon is also marketed as a natural gemstone used in jewelry. The metal also has many other uses, among them in photographic flashbulbs and surgical instruments, to make the glass for television, in the removal of residual gases from electronic vacuum tubes, and as a hardening agent in alloys, especially steel. The paper and packaging industries are finding that Zirconium compounds make good surface coatings because they have excellent water resistance and strength. Zirconium and its salts generally have low systemic toxicity. The estimated dietary intake is about 50 micron. Most passes through the gut without being absorbed, and that which is adsorbed tends to accumulate slightly more in the skeleton than in tissue

Possible Symptoms of Zirconium toxicity may include fatigue, hypothyroidism, acne, poor digestion, hypochlorhydria, and adrenal insufficiency.