Nutritional Items

Type

How Does It Benefit The Body?

Where Is It Found?

Alanine

(Amino Acid-Non essential)

An essential nutrient, but synthesized by the body. “Non essential” to get from diet. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. Together with histidine, it produces carnosine, which helps improve exercise performance.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Alpha-linolenic Acid

(Essential Fatty Acid)

(ALA) Polyunsaturated fat. Omega-3. Mainly used by the body for energy. Converted by the body into EPA and DHA.  See Omega-3 for benefits to body.

Chia, walnuts, flaxseed, soybean, pumpkin, perilla seed oil, tofu, etc.

Aluminum

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Our bodies absorb only a small amount of the aluminum we take in with our food. Cooking in aluminum pans does not greatly increase the amount in our diet, except when cooking acidic foods such as rhubarb. Some indigestion tablets are pure aluminum hydroxide.

It is commonly found in most water (except filtered and bottled). Also found in cereals, fruits, vegetables, baked goods prepared with chemical leavening agency (i.e. baking powder), processed cheese, grains, vegetables, herbs, tea; aluminum cookware; antiperspirants.

Arginine

(Amino Acid-Conditional)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function.  Cardiovascular system.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Arsenic

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Organically-bound arsenic is an essential mineral that comes from plants and animals and are not toxic.  In fact, they are handled fairly easily by the body and eliminated by the kidneys. Inorganic arsenic is toxic to humans. Despite arsenic’s toxic reputation, it has some therapeutic efficacy and was used as far back as 18th century. Used as an antibiotic and treatment for leukemia and other cancers.   Possible bio-chemical role that affects metabolism of amino acid methionine, enzyme activations, regulation of gene expression, role in central nervous system, vascular diseases and cancer.

Organic arsenic is commonly found in seafood. It’s also found in cereals, grains, dairy products, eggs, meat, water, seeds, nuts, fruits, vegetables.

Asparagine

(Amino Acid-Non essential)

An essential nutrient, but synthesized by the body. “Non essential” to get from diet. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. A nontoxic carrier of residual ammonia to be eliminated from the body.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Aspartic acid

(Amino Acid-Non essential)

An essential nutrient, but synthesized by the body. “Non essential” to get from diet. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. RNA and DNA,  promote a robust metabolism.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Barium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used as contrast agent in x-ray imaging.

Present in foods such as carrots, onions, lettuce, beans, and cereal grains.

Beryllium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used in x-ray equipment.

Beta-carotene

(Vitamin)

Pigment in plants that gives them color. Converted into Vitamin A in the liver.  Antioxidant. Same benefits as Vitamin A.

Carrots, spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, cantaloupe, and winter squash. In general, the more intense the color of the fruit or vegetable, the more beta-carotene it contains.

Bioflavonoids (anthoxanthins)

(Vitamin)

Essential for the absorption of vitamin C. Injury healing, arteries, eyes, etc.

Citrus fruits, green peppers, lemons, limes, oranges, cherries, and grapes. Quercetin is a highly concentrated form of bioflavonoids found in broccoli, citrus fruits and red and yellow onions.

Boron

(Trace Mineral)

Growth and maintenance of bone; wound healing; affects use of estrogen, testosterone, Vit D; brain function, etc.

Chickpeas, almonds, beans, vegetables, bananas, walnuts, avocado, broccoli, prunes, oranges, red grapes, raisins, pears, beans, etc.

Bromine

(Ionic Mineral)

Growing evidence that it’s essential. Possibly aids in tissue development, catalyst to make collagen.

Grains, nuts, fish.

Calcium

(Amino Acid)

99% of the body’s calcium is found in bones and teeth. Also helps with muscle function, blood clotting/pressure, neural transmission, hormone secretion and enzyme activation.  If any critical function has insufficient calcium, the body will pull it out of the bones and teeth.

Dairy products; canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines); green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, etc.

Carnitine

(Mineral)

Generic term for L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. Convert fatty acids into fuel. Metabolism. Body can produce L-carnitine out of the amino acids lysine and methionine.

Meat, dairy products

Cerium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used to prevent bacteria growth, treatment of burn wounds.

Cesium

(Ionic Mineral)

Non-essential trace element. Found in muscle, bone, blood. Used for medicinal purposes such as high pH therapy and radiation therapy.

Charcoal

(Element)

Activated Charcoal used for treatment of poisonings and drug overdoses. Also used for digestive issues.

Activated Charcoal products made from sustainable sources like coconut shells or wood.

Chloride

(Trace Mineral)

Chemical reactions in the body (electrolyte).  Needed for fluid balance and food digestion.

Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, meats, breads and vegetables.

Choline

(Vitamin)

Considered one of the B-complex vitamins. Brain and central nervous system, gallbladder regulation, liver function, cell membrane structure, glandular tissues,

Broccoli, oat bran, egg yolks, lecithin, legumes, liver, meat, milk, shrimp, soybeans, whole grain cereals.

Chromium

(Trace Mineral)

Works closely with insulin to regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels. Also needed for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Broccoli, apples, bananas, grapes, orange juice, potatoes, liver, turkey, fish, whole grains, nuts, cheese

Cobalt

(Ionic Mineral)

Vital role in the coenzyme Vitamin B12. Used in cancer treatment and as a medical tracer.

Copper

(Trace Mineral)

Plays important role in iron metabolism; red and white blood cell and hemoglobin formation; growth; brain development; immune function; strong bones.

Liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, prunes, cocoa, black pepper

Cysteine

(Amino Acid-Conditional)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. Detoxification.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Cystine

(Amino Acid)

Chief sulfur-containing compound in protein. Builds hair, skin and nails.

Meat, poultry, dairy, eggs, whole grains, red peppers, garlic and onions

Dysprosium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used in nuclear equipment.

Erbium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known but it has been noted that it stimulates metabolism. The levels are highest in bones, with smaller amounts in the liver and kidneys.

Europium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known.  Potential for use as MRI contrast agent

Fluoride

(Mineral)

Minerals like fluoride, calcium and phosphate are lost from a tooth’s enamel due to acids formed from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth. Fluoride helps re-mineralize teeth and disrupt acid production, thereby preventing tooth decay.

Fluoride is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and water. It has been added to tap water supplies in many municipalities. It is also an ingredient in dental products like rinses and toothpastes.

Formic Acid

Miscellaneous

Toxic but useful at low concentrations as preservative and antibacterial agent. Used for pest control, to produce food, in cosmetics.

Gadolinium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used regularly as contrast agent for MRI.

Gallium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Potential for treating osteoporosis. Used for tumor imaging.

Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

(Amino Acid)

Inhibitory neurotransmitter produced naturally in the brain. Increases relaxation, reduces stress, alleviates pain, improves sleep. Also regulates muscle tone.

GABA found naturally in green, black, and oolong tea; fermented foods like kefir, yogurt and tempeh; whole grains, fava, soy, lentils and other beans, nuts including walnuts, almonds and sunflower seeds, fish, including shrimp and halibut, citrus, tomatoes, berries, spinach, broccoli, potatoes, and cocoa.  There is little evidence that GABA can pass through the blood-brain barrier and increase GABA levels in the brain.

Germanium

(Mineral)

Acts against inflammation, antioxidant properties, immune system, cardiovascular system, treats eye conditions.

Garlic, ginseng, aloe, comfrey

Glutamic acid

(Amino Acid-Non essential)

An essential nutrient, but synthesized by the body. “Non essential” to get from diet. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters.  Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Enhance mental alertness and mood. Immune function.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Glutamine

(Amino Acid-Conditional)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Glutathione

Miscellaneous

Produced by the liver. Antioxidant.  Immune function and controls inflammation. Detoxifier.

Garlic, onions, cruciferous vegetables (i.e. broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower) whey products, colostrum.

Gold

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used in medicine since ancient times. Target sites for gold drugs are likely to be proteins. Many other uses being developed.

Hafnium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Histidine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Produce histamine, a neurotransmitter that is vital to immune response, digestion, sexual function and sleep-wake cycles. It’s critical for maintaining the myelin sheath, a protective barrier that surrounds your nerve cells.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Holmium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Radioisotope used for radiation therapy.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Hydrogen

(Element)

Most of the hydrogen in the body is bound with oxygen to form water. Acts as a positive ion in chemical reactions.  Plays crucial role in energy production. Protects from free radical damage.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Stay hydrated.

Iodine (Aqueous)

(Mineral)

Needed for the production of thyroid hormone which helps set body temperature. Needed for growth and development, metabolism, reproduction and nerve and muscle function.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Organ meats, red meat, fish, poultry, shellfish (especially clams), egg yolks, dark leafy greens, iron-enriched breads and cereals

Iron

(Trace Mineral)

Red and white blood cell and hemoglobin formation; energy production; growth and development; immune function; reproduction; wound healing.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Aqueous Iodine, also known as Lugol’s iodine, is a strong iodine solution that also contains potassium iodide and water.  Iodine is found in iodized salt, seafood including fish, shellfish, kelp and seaweed, dairy products, grains, beef and poultry.

Isoleucine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet.  Muscle metabolism, immune function, hemoglobin production and energy regulation.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Lanthanum

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used to treat electrolyte imbalance.

Biological role not known.  In clinical development for treating cancer.

Lecithin

(Fatty Acid)

Biological role not known. Used to treat electrolyte imbalance.

Helps with nutritional absorption, regulates metabolism, improves digestion and the nervous system. Dissolves cholesterol, triglycerides and other lipids.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Leucine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Protein synthesis, muscle repair, regulate blood sugar levels, stimulates wound healing and produces growth hormones.

Helps with nutritional absorption, regulates metabolism, improves digestion and the nervous system. Dissolves cholesterol, triglycerides and other lipids.

Egg yolks, soybeans

Linoleic Acid

(Essential Fatty Acid)

(LA) Polyunsaturated fat. Omega-6. Must come from diet.  See Omega-6 for benefits to body.

Pine nuts, sunflower seeds, safflower oil,  sunflower oil, corn oil, walnuts, almonds, cashews, etc.

Lithium

(Element)

Brain health, mental health, cardiovascular function.

Most common source of natural lithium is tap water, natural waters, thermal baths, bottled mineral drinking water. Also available in nutritional supplements.

Lutetium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Used in cancer treatment.

Lysine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Protein synthesis, hormone and enzyme production, absorption of calcium, energy production, immune function and the production of collagen and elastin.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Magnesium

(Mineral)

Chemical reactions in the body (electrolyte). Needed for fluid balance, neurological and muscle function, heart regulation, etc.  Helps build bones and teeth.

Nuts and seeds; legumes; leafy, green vegetables; seafood; chocolate; artichokes; “hard” drinking water

Manganese

(Trace Mineral)

Cartilage and bone formation. Carbohydrate, protein and cholesterol metabolism. Wound healing.

Green leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, pineapple, sweet potato, tea

Melatonin

Miscellaneous

Hormone produced primarily by the pineal gland. Helps one get to sleep/regulates wakefulness. Extends life. Antioxidant. Reduces graying of hair.

Getting more sunlight exposure during the day is the best approach for increasing melatonin production.

Methionine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet.  Metabolism, detoxification, tissue growth, digestive system, muscles, hair and the absorption of zinc and selenium.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Neodymium

(Ionic Mineral)

A biological role not known. Used to make flint for lighters, a component in glass, used in powerful permanent magnets.

Nickel

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. May be component of certain metalloenzymes. Nickel is one of the most common allergies in the world.

Nuts, legumes, grains, chocolate, fruits, vegetables, milk, fish, eggs

Niobium

(Ionic Mineral)

Biological role not known. Potential antiviral agents.

Nitrogen

(Element)

Important component of amino acids, used to build peptides and proteins. Essential component of DNA and RNA and other molecules.

Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, fruits, vegetables.

Omega 3

(Essential Fatty Acid)

Polyunsaturated fat.  Must come from diet. Includes eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), used to make eicosanoids, which help reduce inflammation; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is extremely important for brain development/function.  Also includes alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is converted into EPA and DHA.  All support heart, mental, bone and skin health, immune system, metabolism and reduce risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, arthritis.  EPA also helps reduce inflammation.

Fish: Mackerel, salmon, cod liver oil, herring, sardines, etc.   Plants/seeds/oils: Chia seeds, walnuts, flaxseed, soybean.

Omega 6

(Essential Fatty Acid)

Polyunsaturated fat. Must come from diet. We need omega 6 in the right balance with omega 3. Omega 6s includes linoleic acid (LA) and gamma linolenic acid (GLA). GLA is the more desirable form. LA is converted by the body into arachidonic acid (ARA), which can increase inflammation. This makes some omega 6s less healthy than others and less healthy than omega 3s. Primarily used by body for energy.

LA-Soybean oil, corn oil, walnuts, sunflower seeds, almonds, cashews, etc. GLA-evening primrose, black currant and borage oils and blue-green algae.

Omega 9

(Fatty Acid-Non Essential)

An essential nutrient, but produced by the body. “Non essential” to get from diet.  Monounsaturated fat.  Most common is oleic acid. May benefit health by lowering triglycerides and LDL (“bad cholesterol”) and raising HDL (“good cholesterol”). Also helps control blood sugar.

Olive oil (predominantly omega 9, but also contains omega 3&6), Cashew oil, almond oil, avocado oil, peanut oil, almonds, cashews, walnuts

Omithine

(Fatty Acid-Non Essential)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. Detoxification.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Omithine

(Amino Acid-Non-essential)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. Detoxification.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Oxygen

(Element)

Every cell in the body needs oxygen to survive. Optimal oxygenation of cells starts with entry through the lungs, then circulation and delivery of oxygen within the body. Needed to burn fat and perform during physical activity.  Also abundant in the body in the form of water. Needed for countless metabolic reactions.

Increase the level of oxygen through exercise, fresh air, deep breathing through nostrils, stay hydrated. Foods: Fresh, steamed vegetables such as spinach, bell peppers, potatoes, carrots, green beans.

Phenylalanine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Production of neurotransmitters, structure and function of proteins and enzymes, and the production of other amino acids.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Phosphorus

(Essential Mineral)

Chemical reactions in the body (electrolyte). Needed for fluid balance, nervous system and muscle function, heart regulation, etc.  Helps build bones and teeth. Part of DNA and RNA.

Red meat, dairy, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.

Potassium

(Essential Mineral)

Chemical reactions in the body (electrolyte). Needed for fluid balance, nervous system and muscle function, heart regulation, etc.  Benefits bones.

Sweet potato, tomato, potato, beans, lentils, dairy products, seafood, banana, prune, carrot, orange

Praseodymium

(Ionic Minerals)

Used to make flint for lighters, to color glass, metals in aircraft engines, etc.

Proline

(Amino Acid-Non-essential)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function. Cardiovascular system.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Rhenium

(Ionic Minerals)

Used in radiation to treat cancer

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe)

(MISC)

A substance produced during metabolism

Samarium

(Ionic Minerals)

Has no biological role but is said to stimulate metabolism. Used as radioactive drug to stabilizes pain in bones

Scandium

(Ionic Minerals)

Has no biological role and only trace amounts found in the food chain. Used in PET & SPECT imaging

Selenium

(Trace Mineral)

Antioxidant; immune, brain, reproduction, thyroid function

Brazil nuts, halibut, yellowfin tuna, oysters, sunflower seed, shiitake mushrooms, chicken, eggs, sardines

Serine

(Amino Acid-Non-essential)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function.  RNA and DNA. Tryptophan, used to make serotonin, can’t be produced without serine.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Silica

(Essential Mineral)

Helps calcium and other minerals absorb.  Bone, nails, skin, hair, nervous system. Helps stabilize the pancreas’s release of insulin.

Whole grains, melons, cucumbers, artichokes, asparagus, leafy greens, beans.  Herbs: dandelion, nettle leaf, horsetail, oat straw, rose hips

Silicon

(Trace Mineral)

Connective tissue, bones, skin, flexible joints

Drinking water, beer, unrefined grains (oats, barley, rice, wheat bran), fruits, vegetables (spinach) and beans (red lentils).

Silver

(Ionic Minerals)

Has no known biological role. Best known for potent antimicrobial properties. Used for wounds, ulcers.

Sodium

(Essential Mineral)

Chemical reactions in the body (electrolyte). Needed for fluid balance, nervous system and muscle function, heart regulation, etc. 

Unrefined mineral salt is the best source.  Also in sea vegetables, milk and spinach.  “Enhanced” poultry has been injected with a salt mixture to make juicier/more tender. Also found in processed meats, snacks, cheese, etc.

Strontium

(Ionic Minerals)

Not thought to be essential. Utilization of calcium. May be beneficial in strengthening tooth enamel. Drug, strontium ranelate aids bone growth & bone density.

Toothpaste additive, corn, cabbage, onion, lettuce

Sulfur

(Trace Mineral)

Helps shape and stabilize some protein structures. Needed for healthy hair, skin, and nails.

Occurs in foods as part of protein; meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, legumes, nuts

Tantalum

(Ionic Minerals)

Has no known biological role. Used in implants and bone repair

Taurine

(Amino Acid-Non-essential)

An amino sulfonic acid that’s a required building block of protein. Found in the brain, retina, heart, blood platelets, muscles. People who’s bodies can’t make taurine must get all they need from their diet or supplements.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Terbium

(Ionic Minerals)

Used to change electrical properties in semiconductors, in solid-state devices, in production of electronic devices and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells, etc.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Threonine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Structural proteins such as collagen and elastin, in skin and connective tissues. Fat metabolism. Immune function.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Tin

(Ionic Minerals)

Little evidence if essential element. No biological role in the body however has been found to speed up metabolism. Being studied for anti-cancer and antiviral activity.

Canned foods, dinnerware

Titanium

(Ionic Minerals)

Not thought to be essential. Used for implants, anti-cancer complexes.

Tryptophan

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Associated with causing drowsiness and relaxation. Needed for proper nitrogen balance and the production of serotonin. Helps regulate appetite, promotes better sleep quality, elevates mood.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Tyrosine

(Amino Acid-Non-essential)

Essential, but synthesized by the body. When sick or under significant stress, the body may not produce enough to meet needs. Used to produce proteins and neurotransmitters. Immune function

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Valine

(Amino Acid-Essential)

Must come from diet. Promote normal growth, repair tissues, regulate blood sugar, provide energy, stimulate central nervous system.

Foods that contain all amino acids are complete proteins; including, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, soy, quinoa and buckwheat. Incomplete sources, which lack one or more essential amino acid, include beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains & vegetables.

Vandium

(Ionic Mineral)

Helps Build strong bones and prevents Osteoporosis

Shellfish, grains, mushrooms, spinach, beer, and wine.  Also found in spices including black pepper, parsley, and dill seed.

Vitamin A (retinyl Palmitrate

(Vitamin)

Vision, growth and development, immune function, reproduction, red blood cell formation, skin and bone formation

Cantaloupe, carrots, dairy products, eggs, fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, pumpkin, red peppers, sweet potatoes, dried apricots

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

(Vitamin)

Conversion of food into energy, aids nervous system function. Prevents beriberi.

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, beans, brown rice, egg yolks, fish, liver peanuts, peas, pork, poultry, rice bran, wheat germ, whole grains, etc.

Vitamin B10 (PABA)

(Vitamin)

Vitamin B11 (salicylic acid)

(Vitamin)

Skin health, creation of DNA and RNA, immune function, production of red blood cells, metabolizes fats and proteins.

Raspberries, granny smith apples, cucumber, cantaloupe, strawberries, tomatoes, red grapes

Vitamin B12  (cobalamin)

(Vitamin)

Conversion of food into energy, nervous system function, DNA and red blood cell formation, increases melatonin production.

Brewer’s/Nutritional yeast, clams, eggs, herring, kidney, liver, mackerel, milk, dairy products, seafood.  Found in sea vegetables such as dulse, kelp, nori, etc., and soybeans.

Vitamin B13 (orotic acid)

(Vitamin)

Compound produced in the body via a mitochondrial enzyme or a cytoplasmic enzyme. Was formerly considered part of the vitamin B complex.   Metabolism. Central nervous system.

Cows milk and other dairy products derived from milk.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

(Vitamin)

Conversion of food into energy, growth and development,  red blood cell formation, maintains mucous membranes, protects eyes from sun damage

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, cheese, egg yolks, fish, legumes, meat, milk, poultry, spinach, whole grains, yogurt, etc.

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

(Vitamin)

Conversion of food into energy, growth and development,  red blood cell formation, maintains mucous membranes, protects eyes from sun damage

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, cheese, egg yolks, fish, legumes, meat, milk, poultry, spinach, whole grains, yogurt, etc.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

(Vitamin)

Known as the antistress vitamin. Conversion of food into energy, fat metabolism, hormone production, nervous system function, red blood cell formation, adrenal stabilizer

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, liver, soybeans, avocado, beans, peas, broccoli, eggs, milk, mushrooms, poultry, seafood, sweet potatoes, whole grains, yogurt, etc.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

(Vitamin)

Seratonin production; immune, nervous and digestive system function; protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism; red blood cell formation.

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, carrots, chicken eggs, fish, meat, peas, spinach, sunflower seeds, walnuts and wheat germ, etc.

Vitamin B7 (biotin)

(Vitamin)

Cell growth, fatty acid production, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, cooked egg yolks, meat, milk, poultry, saltwater fish, soybeans, whole grains, etc.

Vitamin B8 (Myo-Inositol)

(Vitamin)

A form of glucose. Supports healthy cell function,cardiovascular health, vital for hair growth, treats psychological disorders, reproductive function, etc. Our bodiescan produce inositol on their own.

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, fruits, lecithin, legumes, meats, milk, unrefined molasses, raisins, vegetables, whole grains.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid)

(Vitamin)

Considered a brain food.  Needed for energy production and red blood cell formation. Immune system, cell division/replication, metabolism. Very important during pregnancy for fetal nerve cell formation and normal development.

Brewer’s/nutritional yeast, asparagus, avocado, barley, beans, beef, brown rice, cheese, chicken, green leafy vegetables, lamb, liver, milk, mushrooms, oranges, pork, salmon, tuna, wheat germ, whole grains, etc.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

(Vitamin)

Antioxidant; collagen and connective tissue formation; immune function; wound healing; supports adrenal glands

Kale, collards, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, citrus fruits, kiwi, peppers, strawberries, tomatoes

Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)

(Vitamin)

Properties of both a vitamin and hormone. Absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. Growth, especially bones and teeth in children. Protects against muscle weakness, regulates heartbeat, enhances immunity, thyroid function, blood clotting. Vitamin D from food or supplements is not fully active. It requires conversion by the liver and then the kidneys.

Comes from food sources: fish liver oils, fatty saltwater fish (especially mackerel), dairy products, eggs, liver, oatmeal, sweet potatoes, etc.

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

(Vitamin)

Properties of both a vitamin and hormone. Absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. Growth, especially bones and teeth in children. Protects against muscle weakness, regulates heartbeat, enhances immunity, thyroid function, blood clotting. Vitamin D3 is considered vitamin D’s natural form.

Synthesized in the skin in response to exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Exposing the face and arms to the sun for 15 min, 3 times a week ensures adequate amounts of vitamin D in the body.

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

(Vitamin)

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; helps with formation of blood vessels; improves circulation and immune function; provides protection from the sun (ingestion).

Wheatgerm oil,  soybean oil, avocado, spinach, broccoli, nuts, seeds, peanuts, whole grains, juices

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone)

(Vitamin)

Dietary vitamin K. Supports blood clotting, bone formation and repair, protects vascular system, intestines, liver function, immune system.

Asparagus, blackstrap molasses, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, chicken, dark green leafy vegetables, egg yolks, leaf lettuce, liver, oatmeal, rye, safflower oil, seaweed, soybeans, wheat and yogurt. Herbs: alfalfa, green tea, kelp, nettle, oat straw, chepherd’s purse.

Vitamin K2 (menaquinone)

(Vitamin)

Made in the body by intestinal bacteria and found in some food products. Same benefits as K1.

Butter, cow liver, chicken, egg yolks, fermented soybean products, some cheeses.

Zinc Orotate

(Essential Mineral)

Form of zinc more readily absorbed by the body. Needed for growth and development, immune function, nervous system function, protein formation, taste, smell, and wound healing.

Red meat, dairy products, poultry, seafood, nuts, whole grains, beans, peas

Zirconium

(Ionic Mineral)

No known biological role.  Used in knee & hip replacements, middle-ear reconstruction surgery, dental implants, antiperspirants.